📘 ❞ An Introduction to English Phonology ❝ كتاب ــ April McMahon اصدار 2002

علم الأصوات phonology - 📖 كتاب ❞ An Introduction to English Phonology ❝ ــ April McMahon 📖

█ _ April McMahon 2002 حصريا كتاب ❞ An Introduction to English Phonology ❝ 2024 Phonology: to English Phonology April McMahon Edinburgh Textbooks on the Language General Editor Heinz Giegerich, Professor of Linguistics (University Edinburgh) Editorial Board Laurie Bauer Wellington) Derek Britton Edinburgh) Olga Fischer Amsterdam) Norman Macleod Edinburgh) Donka Minkova (UCLA) Katie Wales Leeds) Anthony Warner York) An Syntax Jim Miller An Phonology April McMahon An Morphology Andrew Carstairs McCarthy An Phonology Contents To colleagues ix 1 Sounds, spellings and symbols 1 1 1 Phonetics phonology 2 Variation 4 1 3 The International Phonetic Alphabet 5 Recommendations for reading 11 2 phoneme: same but different 12 2 when ignore it Conditioned variation in written language 13 2 phoneme 14 2 4 Some further examples 17 2 5 reality 19 Exercises 21 Recommendations 22 3 Describing consonants 23 3 What’s inside a phonetic symbol? Consonant classification anatomy consonant 24 Exercises 34 Recommendations 35 4 Defining distributions: allophones 36 4 Phonemes revisited Making generalisations statements more precise 38 4 A economical feature system 40 4 Natural classes 46 4 6 warning note phonological rules 47 01 pages i x prelims 18 10 01 1:14 pm Page v Exercises 50 Recommendations 51 5 Criteria contrast: 52 5 Minimal pairs beyond similarity defective distributions 53 5 Free 56 5 Neutralisation 58 5 morphology 60 5 Rules constraints 62 5 7 63 Exercises 65 Recommendations 66 6 vowels 67 6 Vowels versus vowel 69 6 Vowel 74 Exercises 77 Recommendations 78 7 phonemes 79 7 again Establishing contrasts features allophonic 85 7 distribution 87 7 variation, neutralisation morphophonemics 88 Exercises 91 Recommendations 91 8 between accents 92 8 importance accent Systemic differences 94 8 Realisational 99 8 Distributional 101 Exercises 102 Recommendations 103 9 Syllables 104 9 above segment syllable Constituents 105 vi AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH PHONOLOGY 01 vi 9 grammar syllables: patterns acceptability 106 9 Justifying constituents 109 Exercises 115 Recommendations 116 10 word 117 10 Phonological units Stress 118 10 foot 124 10 Segmental phrase 128 Exercises 131 Recommendations 132 Discussion exercises 133 References 143 Index 145 علم الأصوات مجاناً PDF اونلاين هذا القسم يحتويعلي مصادر خاصة بعلم الأصوات هو فرع من اللغويات يهتم بتنظيم اللغات يركز هذا العلم تقليدياً بشكل كبير دراسة نظم الفونيم لغات محددة ولكن قد تغطي أيضاً أي تحليلات لسانية سواءً مستوى ما دون الكلمة (كالمقاطع اللفظية وغيرها) أو جميع مستويات اللغة حيث يتم اعتبار الصوت هيكلياً لنقل المعنى اللغوي Phonology is branch linguistics concerned with systematic organization sounds spoken languages signs sign It used be only study systems (and therefore also called phonemics, or phonematics), may cover any linguistic analysis either at level beneath (including syllable, onset rime, articulatory gestures, features, mora, etc ) all levels where sound are structured convey meaning ] Sign have equivalent building blocks specifications movement, location handshape ] Contents 1 Terminology 2 Derivation definitions 3 History 4 Analysis phonemes 5 Other topics phonology Terminology The 'phonology' (as English) can refer (sound system) given This one fundamental which considered comprise, like its syntax, vocabulary

إنضم الآن وتصفح بدون إعلانات
An Introduction to English Phonology
كتاب

An Introduction to English Phonology

ــ April McMahon

صدر 2002م
An Introduction to English Phonology
كتاب

An Introduction to English Phonology

ــ April McMahon

صدر 2002م
عن كتاب An Introduction to English Phonology:
An Introduction to
English Phonology

April McMahon

Edinburgh Textbooks on the English Language
General Editor
Heinz Giegerich, Professor of English Linguistics (University of Edinburgh)
Editorial Board
Laurie Bauer (University of Wellington)
Derek Britton (University of Edinburgh)
Olga Fischer (University of Amsterdam)
Norman Macleod (University of Edinburgh)
Donka Minkova (UCLA)
Katie Wales (University of Leeds)
Anthony Warner (University of York)
An Introduction to English Syntax
Jim Miller
An Introduction to English Phonology
April McMahon
An Introduction to English Morphology
Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy

An Introduction to
English Phonology
Contents
To colleagues ix
1 Sounds, spellings and symbols 1
1.1 Phonetics and phonology 1
1.2 Variation 4
1.3 The International Phonetic Alphabet 5
Recommendations for reading 11
2 The phoneme: the same but different 12
2.1 Variation and when to ignore it 12
2.2 Conditioned variation in written language 13
2.3 The phoneme 14
2.4 Some further examples 17
2.5 The reality of the phoneme 19
Exercises 21
Recommendations for reading 22
3 Describing English consonants 23
3.1 What’s inside a phonetic symbol? 23
3.2 Consonant classification 23
3.3 The anatomy of a consonant 24
Exercises 34
Recommendations for reading 35
4 Defining distributions: consonant allophones 36
4.1 Phonemes revisited 36
4.2 Making generalisations 36
4.3 Making statements more precise 38
4.4 A more economical feature system 40
4.5 Natural classes 46
4.6 A warning note on phonological rules 47
01 pages i-x prelims 18/10/01 1:14 pm Page v
Exercises 50
Recommendations for reading 51
5 Criteria for contrast: the phoneme system 52
5.1 Minimal pairs and beyond 52
5.2 Phonetic similarity and defective distributions 53
5.3 Free variation 56
5.4 Neutralisation 58
5.5 Phonology and morphology 60
5.6 Rules and constraints 62
5.7 The phoneme system 63
Exercises 65
Recommendations for reading 66
6 Describing vowels 67
6.1 Vowels versus consonants 67
6.2 The anatomy of a vowel 69
6.3 Vowel classification 74
Exercises 77
Recommendations for reading 78
7 Vowel phonemes 79
7.1 The same but different again 79
7.2 Establishing vowel contrasts 79
7.3 Vowel features and allophonic rules 85
7.4 Phonetic similarity and defective distribution 87
7.5 Free variation, neutralisation and morphophonemics 88
Exercises 91
Recommendations for reading 91
8 Variation between accents 92
8.1 The importance of accent 92
8.2 Systemic differences 94
8.3 Realisational differences 99
8.4 Distributional differences 101
Exercises 102
Recommendations for reading 103
9 Syllables 104
9.1 Phonology above the segment 104
9.2 The syllable 104
9.3 Constituents of the syllable 105
vi AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH PHONOLOGY
01 pages i-x prelims 18/10/01 1:14 pm Page vi
9.4 The grammar of syllables: patterns of acceptability 106
9.5 Justifying the constituents 109
Exercises 115
Recommendations for reading 116
10 The word and above 117
10.1 Phonological units above the syllable 117
10.2 Stress 118
10.3 The foot 124
10.4 Segmental phonology of the phrase and word 128
Exercises 131
Recommendations for reading 132
Discussion of the exercises 133
References 143
Index 145
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