📘 ❞ Pharmaceutical microbiology ❝ كتاب

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█ _ 0 حصريا كتاب ❞ Pharmaceutical microbiology ❝ 2024 microbiology: PREFACE The textbook of ‘Pharmaceutical Microbiology’ specifically aims at the ever demanding thoughtful need an absolutely well documented compilation factual details related to : theoritical principles, classifications, diagramatic profiles, graphic presentations, critical explanation, latest examples for Pharmacy Degree (B Pharm ,) throughout Indian Universities, SAARC countries, and similar curricula adopted abroad Modern invigorative society, based on overwhelming overemphasized broad spectrum importance vis a vis utilities ‘Microbiology’ profusely gets benefited from intricate species of scores microorganisms in several ways means, namely antibiotics, vaccines, enzymes, vitamins etc Nevertheless, quantum leap forward field ‘Modern Biotechnology’ rests predominantly upon reasonably sound microbiological foundation Besides, do modulate plethora of vital functionalities, such as ( a ) enable completion cycles C, O, N S which essentially occur both terrestrial aquatic systems ; ( b ) provide indispensable components prevailing ecosystem ( c ) serve source ‘nutrients’ occurring the grass root practically large segment ecological food webs chains The entire course content presented has been meticulously and painstakingly developed expanded per AICTE Approved Syllabus–2000 Each chapter has duly expatiated simple, lucid, crisp language easily comprehensible by its august readers A unique largely acceptable style presentation adopted, viz , brief introduction, principles, labeled figures, graphics, diagrams equipments, descriptions, explanations, pharmaceutical applications, selected classical examples chapter is elaborated with adequate foot notes, references, ‘further reading references’ end An exhaustive ‘Glossary Important Microbiological Terminologies’ annexed at fairly up date computer generated ‘Index’ will surely enlarge vision readers gaining easy access subject enriched text materials Pharmaceutical Microbiology consists Ten Chapters : (1) Introduction Scope ; (2) Structure and Function Bacterial Cells ; (3) Characterization, Classification Taxonomy of Microbes (4) Identification Microorganisms (5) Nutrition, Cultivation Isolation Bacteria Actinomycetes Fungi Viruses (6) Microbial Genetics Variations (7) Control Physical and Chemical Methods (8) Sterility Testing Products (9) Immune Systems and (10) Mi crobiological (Microbial) Assays Antibiotics–Vitamins–Amino Acids text material essentially embodies not only ample emphasis vivid coverage of fundamental principles scientific discipline but also maintains manageable length for apprehension brilliant students CONTENTS 1 Scope 1 1 1 Introduction 2 Historical Development 3 1 The Microscope Spontaneous Generation Vs Biogenesis 4 1 3 Fermentation 6 1 4 Germ Theory 5 Classical Laboratory Pure Cultures 7 1 6 Immunity 8 1 7 Medical 9 1 8 10 1 9 Industrial 14 1 10 Emergence Molecular Biology 15 1 11 Virology 17 1 12 Microorganisms Geochemical Agents 19 1 13 Microbiology New Millennium 19 2 Cells 23 2 Characteristic Features Shape Size Reproduction 24 2 Formation Colony Mutation Motility Food Oxygen Requirements Temperature Activities 25 2 Organization Type 26 2 Eukaryotic 27 2 Prokaryotic 33 2 Archaeobacteria Eubacteria 37 2 Methanogenic Bacteria [Methanogens] 38 2 Extreme Halophiles 40 ( ix ) 2 Thermoacidophiles 41 2 Thermoplasma Sulfolobus 42 2 Typical 43 2 Capsules Slimes 44 2 Flagella Fimbria 46 2 Flagella Fimbria [or Pili] 48 2 Cell Envelope 49 2 Gram Positive Negative Bacteria 51 2 Significance Teichoic Acids 53 2 Membrane 54 2 Cytoplasm 55 2 Ribosomes 57 2 Cellular Reserve Materials 58 3 Microbes 62 3 Characterization Morphological Characteristics 63 3 Characteristics 64 3 Cultural Metabolic 66 3 Antigenic Genetic 67 3 DNA Base Composition Sequence Nucleotide Bases DNA 68 3 Pathogenecity 69 3 Ecological Classificiation 70 3 Difficulties Encountered in Microorganisms Objectives Classification Classifying 71 3 Relatedness Intuitive Method 72 3 Numerical Taxonomy Systemetized 75 3 Natural Phyletic Calssification 75 ( x ) 3 Linnear Binomial Scheme 76 3 Phenotypic 77 3 Microscopic Examination 79 3 Cataloguing rRNA 80 3 Computer Aided 81 3 82 3 87 3 Kingdom Prokaryotae 88 3 Actinomyctes 89 3 General Actinomycetes 90 3 91 3 Whole Carbohydrate Patterns Aerobic Actinomycetes Major Constituents Wall Types of Actinomycetes Groups Actinomycetes Based Whole Cell Pattern Cell Wall Type 92 3 Multiocular Sporangia Related Organisms 93 3 Group Genus 94 3 Order 97 3 Family 98 3 102 3 Salient 103 3 Form Cell 104 3 Size 105 3 Structure Rickettsia Coxiella 107 3 Spirochaetes 108 4 112 4 Morphology 113 4 Selective Diagnostic Media Differential Media 116 4 Eosin Methylene Blue Agar [EMB Agar] 116 ( xi ) 4 MacConkey Agar Hektoen Enteric [HE Enrichment Blood Chocolate 117 4 Triple Sugar Iron [TSI 119 4 Biochemical Tests (or Properties) 120 4 (Sugar) Litmus Milk Indole Production Methyl Red Test [MR Test] 121 4 Voges Proskauer [VP Citrate Utilization Nitrate Reduction 122 4 Ammonia Urease Test Production Hydrogen Sulphide 123 4 Reduction Blue of Catalase [Tube Oxidase Reaction 14 Egg Yolk 124 4 15 Growth Presence Potassium Cyanide 16 Composite Profile Stains 127 4 Preparation Specimens for Light Microscopy 128 4 Standard Preparations Smears Staining 129 4 131 4 Gram’s Stain Acid Fast Miscellaneous Capsule 132 4 Endospore 133 ( xii ) 4 Microscopy Instruments 133 4 Concepts Microscope Variants 134 4 Bright Field Dark 136 4 Phase Contrast Interference Contrast (DIC) 139 4 Fluorescence Electron 141 4 Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) 142 4 Scanning (SEM) 143 5 Viruses 146 5 Nutrition 147 5 Binary Fission 148 5 Normal Curve 149 5 Lag Growth 150 5 Translational Periods Between Various Phases Synchronous 151 5 Effect Nutritional Concentration Rate of Bacterial Culture 152 5 Determining Techniques 154 5 Bismuth Sulphate Media Staphylococci 155 5 Fungi 156 5 Reproduction 158 5 Asexual Sexual 159 5 Importance Fung Methods specifications Testing pharmaceutical products carried out according Pharmacopeia which there are few types For example: In America, United States used; Japan Japanese Pharmacopeia; British Pharmacopoeia Europe European These contain test method be followed when testing, along defined specifications amount allowed given product The change depending type it introduced body pharmacopoeia covers areas like sterility endotoxin use biological indicators, microbial limits testing enumeration, grade water كتب علمية مجاناً PDF اونلاين الطريقة العلمية أو المنهج العلمي الثقافة عبارة عن مجموعة من التقنيات والطرق المصممة لفحص الظواهر والمعارف المكتشفة المراقبة حديثا من ضمن محتويات القسم العلماء‏ , أحيائية,‏ بيئية لا خيالية,‏ رياضيات,‏ طب‏, علم والكثير

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Pharmaceutical microbiology
كتاب

Pharmaceutical microbiology

Pharmaceutical microbiology
كتاب

Pharmaceutical microbiology

مميّز
عن كتاب Pharmaceutical microbiology:
PREFACE
The textbook of
‘Pharmaceutical Microbiology’
specifically aims at the ever demanding
thoughtful need of an absolutely well-documented compilation of factual details related to : theoritical
principles, classifications, diagramatic profiles, graphic presentations, critical explanation, latest examples
for the Pharmacy Degree (B. Pharm.,) throughout the Indian Universities, SAARC-countries, and similar
curricula adopted abroad.
Modern invigorative society, based on the overwhelming and overemphasized broad-spectrum
importance
vis-a-vis
utilities of
‘Microbiology’
profusely gets benefited from the intricate species of
scores of microorganisms in several ways and means, namely :
antibiotics, vaccines, enzymes, vitamins
etc. Nevertheless, a quantum-leap-forward in the field of
‘Modern Biotechnology’
rests predominantly
upon reasonably sound
microbiological foundation.
Besides, microorganisms do modulate a plethora
of vital and critical functionalities, such as : (
a
) enable completion of cycles of C, O, N and S which
essentially occur in both
terrestrial and aquatic systems ;
(
b
) provide absolutely indispensable
components of prevailing
ecosystem ;
and (
c
) serve as a critical source of
‘nutrients’
occurring at the
grass-root of practically a large segment of
ecological food webs and chains.
The entire course-content presented in
‘Pharmaceutical Microbiology’
has been meticulously
and painstakingly developed and expanded as per the
AICTE-Approved Syllabus–2000.
Each chapter
has been duly expatiated in a simple, lucid, and crisp language easily comprehensible by its august
readers. A unique largely acceptable style of presentation has been adopted,
viz.,
brief introduction,
principles, labeled figures, graphics, diagrams of equipments, descriptions, explanations, pharmaceutical
applications, and selected classical examples. Each chapter is duly elaborated with adequate foot-notes,
references, and ‘further reading references’ at the end.
An exhaustive
‘Glossary of Important Microbiological Terminologies’
has been duly annexed
at the end of the textbook. A fairly up to date computer-generated
‘Index’
in the textbook will surely
enlarge the vision of its readers in gaining an easy access of subject enriched well documented text
materials.
Pharmaceutical Microbiology
consists of
Ten Chapters :
(1) Introduction and Scope ;
(2) Structure
and Function : Bacterial Cells ; (3) Characterization, Classification and Taxonomy of
Microbes ; (4) Identification of Microorganisms ; (5) Nutrition, Cultivation and Isolation : Bacteria-
Actinomycetes-Fungi-Viruses ; (6) Microbial Genetics and Variations ; (7) Microbial Control by Physical
and Chemical Methods ; (8) Sterility Testing : Pharmaceutical Products ; (9) Immune Systems ; and
(10) Mi
crobiological (Microbial) Assays : Antibiotics–Vitamins–Amino Acids.
The text material essentially embodies not only an ample emphasis on the vivid coverage of
fundamental principles of microbiology as a scientific discipline but also maintains a manageable length
for the apprehension of brilliant students.
CONTENTS
1. Introduction and Scope
...
1
1.1 Introduction
...
1
1.2 Historical Development of Microbiology
...
3
1.2.1. The Microscope
...
3
1.2.2.
Spontaneous Generation
Vs
Biogenesis
...
4
1.2.3. Fermentation
...
6
1.2.4. Germ Theory
...
6
1.2.5. Classical Laboratory Methods and Pure Cultures
...
7
1.2.6.
Immunity
...
8
1.2.7. Medical Microbiology
...
9
1.2.8. Pharmaceutical Microbiology
...
10
1.2.9. Industrial Microbiology
...
14
1.2.10. Emergence of Molecular Biology
...
15
1.2.11. Emergence of Virology
...
17
1.2.12.
Microorganisms as Geochemical Agents
...
19
1.2.13. Microbiology in the New Millennium
...
19.
2. Structure and Function : Bacterial Cells
...
23
2.1 Introduction
...
23
2.2 Characteristic Features
...
23
2.2.1. Shape
...
23
2.2.2. Size
...
23
2.2.3. Reproduction
...
24
2.2.4. Formation of Colony
...
24
2.2.5. Mutation
...
24
2.2.6.
Motility
...
24
2.2.7. Food and Oxygen Requirements
...
24
2.2.8. Temperature Requirements
...
24
2.3 Activities
...
25
2.4 Organization of Microbial Cells
...
25
2.4.1. Type of Cells
...
26
2.4.1.1. Eukaryotic Cells
...
27
2.4.1.2. Prokaryotic Cells
...
33
2.5 Archaeobacteria and Eubacteria
...
37
2.5.1. Methanogenic
Bacteria [Methanogens]
...
38
2.5.2. Extreme Halophiles
...
40
(
ix
)
2.5.3. Thermoacidophiles
...
41
2.5.3.1. Thermoplasma
...
41
2.5.3.2. Sulfolobus
...
41
2.6 The Bacterial Cells
...
42
2.6.1. Typical Bacterial Cells
...
43
2.6.2. Capsules and Slimes
...
44
2.6.3. Flagella and Fimbria
...
46
2.6.3.1. Flagella
...
46
2.6.3.2. Fimbria [or Pili]
...
48
2.6.4. Cell Envelope
...
49
2.6.5. Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria
...
51
2.6.6. Significance of Teichoic Acids
...
53
2.6.7. The Cell Membrane
...
54
2.6.8. Bacterial Cytoplasm
...
55
2.6.9. Ribosomes
...
57
2.6.10. Cellular Reserve Materials
...
58
3. Characterization, Classification and Taxonomy of Microbes
...
62
3.1 Introduction
...
62
3.2 Characterization
...
62
3.2.1. Morphological Characteristics
...
63
3.2.2. Chemical
Characteristics
...
64
3.2.3. Cultural Characteristics
...
64
3.2.4. Metabolic Characteristics
...
66
3.2.5. Antigenic Characteristics
...
66
3.2.6. Genetic Characteristics
...
67
3.2.6.1. DNA Base Composition
...
67
3.2.6.2. Sequence of Nucleotide Bases in DNA
...
68
3.2.7. Pathogenecity
...
69
3.2.8. Ecological Characteristics
...
69
3.3 Classificiation
...
70
3.3.1. Difficulties Encountered
in Classification of Microorganisms
...
70
3.3.2. Objectives of Classification
...
70
3.3.3. Genetic Methods of
Classifying Microbes
...
71
3.3.3.1. Genetic Relatedness
...
71
3.3.3.2. The Intuitive Method
...
72
3.3.3.3. Numerical Taxonomy
...
72
3.3.4. Systemetized Classification
...
75
3.3.4.1. Natural Classification
...
75
3.3.4.2. Phyletic Calssification
...
75
(
x
)
3.3.4.3. Linnear Binomial Scheme
...
76
3.3.4.4. Phenotypic Classification
...
77
3.3.4.5. Microscopic Examination
...
79
3.3.4.6. Cataloguing rRNA
...
80
3.3.4.7. Computer Aided Classification
...
81
3.3.4.8. Bacterial Classification
...
82
3.4 Taxonomy
...
87
3.5 The Kingdom Prokaryotae
...
88
3.5.1. Actinomyctes
...
89
3.5.1.1. General Characteristics
...
89
3.5.1.2. Significance of Actinomycetes
...
90
3.5.1.3. Classification
...
91
3.5.1.3.1. Whole Cell Carbohydrate Patterns of Aerobic
Actinomycetes
...
91
3.5.1.3.2. Major Constituents of Cell Wall Types of
Actinomycetes
...
91
3.5.1.3.3. Groups of Actinomycetes Based on Whole
Cell Carbohydrate Pattern and Cell
Wall Type
...
92
3.5.1.3.4. Actinomycetes with Multiocular Sporangia
...
92
3.5.1.4. Actinomycetes and Related Organisms
...
93
3.5.1.4.1. Group
...
93
3.5.1.4.2. Genus
...
94
3.5.1.4.3. Order
...
97
3.5.1.4.4. Family
...
98
3.5.2. Bacteria
...
102
3.5.2.1. Salient Features
...
103
3.5.2.2. Structure and Form of the Bacterial Cell
...
104
3.5.2.2.1. Size and Shape
...
105
3.5.2.2.2. Structure
...
105
3.5.3. Rickettsia and Coxiella
...
107
3.5.4. Spirochaetes
...
108
4. Identification of Microorganisms
...
112
4.1 Introduction
...
112
4.2 Morphology
...
113
4.3 Selective and Diagnostic Media
...
113
4.3.1. Differential
Media
...
116
4.3.1.1. Eosin Methylene Blue Agar [EMB-Agar]
...
116
(
xi
)
4.3.1.2. MacConkey Agar
...
116
4.3.1.3. Hektoen Enteric Agar [HE-Agar]
...
116
4.3.2. Enrichment Media
...
116
4.3.2.1. Blood Agar
...
116
4.3.2.2. Chocolate Agar
...
117
4.3.3. Characteristic Media
...
117
4.3.3.1. Triple Sugar Iron Agar [TSI-Agar]
...
117
4.4 Cultural Characteristics
...
119
4.5 Biochemical Tests (or Properties)
...
120
4.5.1. Carbohydrate (Sugar) Fermentation
...
120
4.5.2. Litmus
Milk
...
120
4.5.3. Indole Production
...
120
4.5.4. Methyl
Red Test [MR-Test]
...
121
4.5.5. Voges-Proskauer Test [VP-Test]
...
121
4.5.6. Citrate Utilization
...
121
4.5.7. Nitrate Reduction
...
122
4.5.8. Ammonia Production
...
122
4.5.9. Urease Test
...
122
4.5.10. Production of Hydrogen Sulphide
...
123
4.5.11. Reduction of Methylene Blue
...
123
4.5.12. Production
of Catalase [Tube Catalase Test]
...
123
4.5.13. Oxidase Reaction
...
123
4.5.14.
Egg-Yolk Reaction
...
124
4.5.15. Growth in Presence of Potassium Cyanide
...
124
4.5.16. Composite Media
...
124
4.6 Profile of Microbial Stains
...
127
4.6.1. Preparation of Bacterial Specimens for Light Microscopy
...
128
4.6.1.1. Standard Preparations
...
128
4.6.1.2. Preparation of Smears for Staining
...
128
4.6.1.3. Gram Staining
...
129
4.6.1.4. Differential Staining
...
131
4.6.1.4.1. Gram’s Stain
...
131
4.6.1.4.2. Acid-Fast Stain
...
131
4.6.1.5. Miscellaneous Staining
...
131
4.6.1.5.1. Capsule Staining
...
132
4.6.1.5.2. Endospore Staining
...
132
4.6.1.5.3. Flagella Staining
...
133
(
xii
)
4.6.2. Microscopy : The Differential Instruments
...
133
4.6.2.1. Concepts
...
133
4.6.2.2. Microscope Variants
...
134
4.6.2.2.1. Bright-Field Microscope
...
134
4.6.2.2.2. Dark-Field Microscope
...
136
4.6.2.2.3. Phase-Contrast Microscope
...
136
4.6.2.2.4. Differential Interference Contrast
(DIC) Microscope
...
139
4.6.2.2.5. Fluorescence Microscope
...
139
4.6.2.2.6. Electron Microscope
...
141
4.6.2.2.6.1. Transmission Electron
Microscope (TEM)
...
142
4.6.2.2.6.2. Scanning Electron
Microscope (SEM)
...
143
5. Nutrition, Cultivation and Isolation : Bacteria-Actinomycetes-Fungi-Viruses
...
146
5.1 Introduction
...
146
5.2 Bacteria
...
146
5.2.1. Nutrition of Microorganisms
...
146
5.2.2. Cultivation of Bacteria
...
147
5.2.2.1. Binary Fission
...
148
5.2.2.2. Normal Growth Curve of Microorganisms
...
149
5.2.2.3. The Lag Phase of Microbial Growth
...
150
5.2.2.4. Translational Periods Between Various Growth Phases
...
150
5.2.2.5. Synchronous Growth
...
151
5.2.2.6. Effect of Nutritional Concentration
Vs
Growth Rate of
Bacterial Culture
...
152
5.2.2.7. Growth Determining Techniques
...
152
5.2.3. Isolation of Bacteria
...
154
5.2.3.1. Selective and Diagnostic Media
...
154
5.2.3.2. Bismuth Sulphate Agar
...
154
5.2.3.3. Selective Media for Staphylococci
...
155
5.3 Actinomycetes
...
155
5.4 Fungi
...
156
5.4.1. Reproduction of Fungi
...
158
5.4.1.1. Asexual Reproduction
...
158
5.4.1.2. Sexual Reproduction
...
159
5.4.2. Industrial Importance of Fung

Methods and specifications
Testing of pharmaceutical products is carried out according to a Pharmacopeia of which there are a few types. For example: In America, the United States Pharmacopeia is used; in Japan there is the Japanese Pharmacopeia; in the United Kingdom there is the British Pharmacopoeia and in Europe the European Pharmacopeia. These contain a test method which is to be followed when testing, along with defined specifications for the amount of microorganisms allowed in a given amount of product.

The specifications change depending on the product type and method in which it is introduced to the body. The pharmacopoeia also covers areas like sterility testing, endotoxin testing, the use of biological indicators, microbial limits testing and enumeration, and the testing of pharmaceutical grade water.
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