█ حصريا تحميل كتاب مجاناً PDF اونلاين 2023
❞ Edfu:is A Civilization its a History by Dr. Mohamed Fathy Mohamed Fawzy :
Its greatness lies in Edfu in Aswan Governorate, being an extension of the third Naqdi civilization and the first capital of Egypt, and that it is the city of the great king Mina, where his birthplace is in Kom al-Ahmar (Naja al-Jama’awiyah in the city of al-Busailiya), who was mentioned in history books as having the virtue of uniting Egypt after it was scattered in the form of sheikhdoms and cities distributed over The banks of the Nile, which produced heroes who fought valiantly in the battle to expel the Hyksos, as it is the whale of the Egyptian ruler who united Egypt and mentioned him above, and it is the region that witnessed the conflict that occurred between its god Horus with his uncle Set (the legend of the struggle between good and evil), and it is the region that comes The great goddess Hathor visited him on her annual journey from Dendera to Edfu to visit her beloved Horus And it has the cap located on the eastern bank of the Nile north of the city, and the ancient Egyptians called it Nekhbet. A local deity in Edfu only, but a deity for all Egyptians, and the kings of Egypt had to approach her as a symbol of Upper Egypt Among the most important tombs in the El-Kab necropolis is the tomb of Barhari, mayor of El-Kab city in the era of King Thutmose III, and the tombs of the heroes of Egypt’s war against the Hyksos, Ahmose bin Abana, the military advisor to the hero, Ahmose I, the victor over the Hyksos in 1700 BC (and clearly the birth of Ahmose bin Abana in El-Keb in the 16th century M. He died in 1501 BC. His military rank was Admiral, and he was a writer of soldiers (and Ebana is the name of his mother). He saw his father fighting the Hyksos, so he decided to join the Egyptian army under the leadership of Sqnen Ra the Second to fight them, and after the killing of Sqnen Ra Taa II and his son Kamose, Ahmose bin Ebana continued in the army And the fighting under the command of Ahmose I, not to mention Rani, and Ahmose bin Nekhbet, as well as the tomb of Setau, the high priest of the goddess Nekhbet, who lived in the era of King Ramses IX As for the jewel of what the city of Edfu possesses, it is its temple, or as it is known as the Temple of the god Horus or Ptolemy, and this temple is the most beautiful and complete Egyptian temple ever, and this temple was revealed by the French archaeologist Auguste Mariette in the second half of the nineteenth century, and its construction took one hundred and eighty years Its construction began in the era of King Ptolemy III in the year 237 BC, and its decoration ended in the year 57 BC, the era of Ptolemy the Piper, and it was inaugurated with a great ceremony in the year 42 BC, in the era of Cleopatra VII In fact, the modern world is indebted to Ptolemy III for laying the foundation stone of the Temple of Edfu, which is considered in the eyes of the world now in general as the largest religious temple that provides us with a true and clear picture of the shape of the Egyptian temple, and of the worship that prevailed during the era of the ancient Egyptians, as well as about the architecture of temples in their time. The ancient Egyptians left us many religious buildings of great magnificence and artistic beauty, but all of them were demolished or distorted to different degrees. We did not find a complete temple in the temple of ˝Edfu˝, which best expresses the religious thought of the ancient Egyptians It is noteworthy that on the walls of each room, hall, or vestibule of the buildings of these two temples, the distinctive name for it was clearly mentioned, as well as the purpose for which this room or hall was allocated, in addition to that, what was in these rooms was engraved. Or the halls of decorations, as their area was also determined... In any case, the ˝Edfu˝ temple, whose foundation was laid by ˝Ptolemy III˝, who was apparently interested in Egyptian religious issues to a large extent, occupies a unique position in its door among all the Egyptian temples existing in the Nile Valley to this day, and there is no wonder about that, as it The only temple that has remained relatively preserved for us, although some of its complementary parts are still buried under the buildings of the town of Edfu The current one is waiting for someone to unveil it, so that after that the Temple of Edfu becomes the greatest temple in the Egyptian world in terms of magnificence, majesty, perfection, and scientific interest. The construction phases of the Edfu temple include three phases. The first: the stage of the original building, which is the nucleus of the temple, and is considered in itself a complete temple, and includes a pillar hall, two other halls, a mihrab, and several side rooms. That is, in the tenth year of the reign of ˝Ptolemy IV Philopator˝. As for decorating the walls with scenes and inscriptions, it was completed in six years, and the work was completed in 207 BC. In the same year, the big door was installed in its place. After that, a revolution arose in Upper Egypt, which did not extinguish its fire until the nineteenth year of the rule of ˝Ptolemy V˝ ˝Epiphanes˝. And when Tranquility returned to the country, work continued in the temple, and on the third day of February in the year 176 BC; That is, in the fifth year of the reign of ˝Ptolemy VII˝ (Philomtor), the doors of the temple were installed, and other supplies were installed in their places. As for the coloring of the scenes, the inscriptions, the decoration of some of the walls with sheets of gold, and the furnishing of the temple, all took place in the few years that followed ... Finally, the gates were erected, and the large entrance doors were installed on December 5, 57 BC; That is, in the twenty-fifth year of the reign of Ptolemy ˝Neus Diosus˝ the twelfth... and it was inaugurated with a great ceremony in the year 42 BC, as previously mentioned. The scenes of the temple were afflicted with a feeling of hidden awe, and it was magnified and manifested whenever a person progressed in his walk from hall to hall, penetrating the temple. As the level of the temple area rises little by little, just as at the same time the ceiling level was lowered little by little, and so the temple was prepared for the establishment of the many ceremonies that take place in it, and it is obvious that the establishment of such a temple was accompanied by precise and precise ceremonies, and it is fortunate that the days have left us On a brief account of the ˝Edfu˝ ritual of presenting the temple to its Lord, and this celebration was a combination of the opening of the mouth ritual and the daily ritual that was held in the temple… • Four festivals were held in the temple, namely: New Year˝s Day. • And the coronation feast of the Sacred Falcon. • And Victory Day. • The Holy Marriage Feast . ❝
❞ ان قضية العصر الحاضر لا تعدو ان تكون سفسطة علمية Scientific Sophism ذلك أن علماء هذا العصر يعالجون قضاياهم في ضوء العلم الحديث، غير أن هذه المعالجة لا تجدي نفعا، لأنها قائمة على العلم المحض و حسب، على حين لا بد من اعتبار أشياء أخرى، ومثال ذلك: ان نشرع في دراسة علمية لأشياء علمية ناقصة، فسوف تؤدي هذه المطالعة العلمية إلى نتائج غير علمية،، ناقصة، باطلة..
لقد عقد في دلهي في يناير 1964 مؤتمر دولي للمستشرقين، اشترك فيه الف ومائتان من العلماء من جميع انحاء العالم. وقدم أحدهم في هذا المؤتمر بحثا يدعي فيه مآثر كثيرة لمسلمي الهند ليست من عمل المسلمين، وانما هي من عمل الملوك الهندوس. وضرب لذلك مثلا بمنارة قطب في دلهي المنسوبة إلى الملك قطب الدين ايبك، على حين بناها الملك الهندوسي سامودرا جوبت قبل 23 قرنا،. وقد أخطأ المؤرخون المسلمون فنسبوها إلى الملك قطب الدين. ويستدل هذا البحث بان في المنارة المذكورة بعض أحجار قديمة نحتت قبل عصر الملك قطب الدين.
وهذا كما يبدو استدلال علمي. إذ أن بعض أحجار المنارة فعلا من الصنف الذي ذكره العالم، ولكن هل يكفي مشاهدة بعض أحجار المنارة للبت في امر بانيها؟ أو انه لا بد من نواح أخرى كثيرة لنشاهدها في هذا الصدد. ومن هنا فان هذا التفسير لا يصدق على منارة قطب ككل. هذا تفسير. وهناك تفسير آخر، هو ان هذه الأحجار القديمة التي يوجد بعضها في المنارة. انما جاءت من أنقاض أبنية قديمة، كما هو معروف في كثير من الأبنية التاريخية الحجرية. ولا مناص من أن نقبل هذا التفسير الثاني حين نشاهد منارة قطب الدين في ضوء طابعها المعماري ورسومها وتصميمها.، والمسجد الناقص بجوارها، والمنارة الثانية التي لم تكمل.، ثم ننتهي إلى أن التفسير الأول ليس إلا قياسا خاطئا قائما على المغالطات.
وهذا هو امر قضية المعارضين، فإنهم نظروا إلى حقائق ناقصة وجزئية، لا يتصل بعضها بالموضوع مطلقا، واعتقدوا ان الدراسة العلمية الحديثة قد أبطلت الدين، على حين اننا لو نظرنا إلى الواقع جملة وتفصيلا فسوف نصل إلى نتيجة تختلف عن الأولى كل الاختلاف . ❝