📘 ❞ Phonology Steven Bird University of Pennsylvania ❝ كتاب ــ Steven Bird اصدار 2002

علم الأصوات phonology - 📖 كتاب ❞ Phonology Steven Bird University of Pennsylvania ❝ ــ Steven Bird 📖

█ _ Steven Bird 2002 حصريا كتاب ❞ Phonology University of Pennsylvania ❝ 2024 Pennsylvania: Phonology Steven Bird University Pennsylvania 2002 Abstract Phonology is the systematic study sounds used in language, their internal structure, and their composition into syllables, words phrases Computational phonology application formal and computational techniques to representation processing phonological information This chapter will present fundamentals descriptive along with a brief overview computational phonology 1 Phonological contrast, phoneme, distinctive features There no limit number distinct that can be produced by human vocal apparatus However, this infinite variety harnessed languages sound systems consisting few dozen language specific categories, or phonemes An example an English phoneme t has a variety like sounds, such as aspirated th ten unreleased t^of net, flapped Rof water (in some dialects) In English, these distinctions are not differentiate words, so we do not find pairs which identical but for use versus t^ (By comparison, some other languages, Icelandic Bengali, aspiration contrastive ) Nevertheless, since sounds (or phones, segments) phonetically similar, they occur complementary distribution (i e disjoint contexts) cannot all said allophones the English Of course, setting up few allophonic variants each finite set does account for mentioned above If one were record multiple instances same utterance single speaker, many small variations could observed loudness, pitch, rate, vowel quality, on These arise because speech motor activity involving coordination of many independent articulators, perfect repetition any utterance simply impossible Similar variations occur between different speakers, person’s next person’s (and how distinguish people’s voices) So 10 people saying times will produce 100 acoustic records diversity tokens associated type is sometimes referred free variation علم الأصوات مجاناً PDF اونلاين هذا القسم يحتويعلي مصادر خاصة بعلم الأصوات هو فرع من اللغويات يهتم بتنظيم اللغات يركز هذا العلم تقليدياً بشكل كبير دراسة نظم الفونيم لغات محددة ولكن قد تغطي أيضاً أي تحليلات لسانية سواءً مستوى ما دون الكلمة (كالمقاطع اللفظية وغيرها) أو جميع مستويات اللغة حيث يتم اعتبار الصوت هيكلياً لنقل المعنى اللغوي Phonology branch linguistics concerned organization spoken signs sign It only (and therefore also called phonemics, phonematics), it may cover linguistic analysis either at level beneath word (including syllable, onset rime, articulatory gestures, features, mora, etc levels where structured convey meaning ] Sign have system equivalent The building blocks specifications movement, location handshape ] Contents 1 Terminology 2 Derivation definitions 3 History 4 Analysis phonemes 5 Other topics phonology Terminology The 'phonology' (as English) refer (sound system) given fundamental considered comprise, its syntax, morphology vocabulary

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Phonology Steven Bird University of Pennsylvania
كتاب

Phonology Steven Bird University of Pennsylvania

ــ Steven Bird

صدر 2002م
Phonology Steven Bird University of Pennsylvania
كتاب

Phonology Steven Bird University of Pennsylvania

ــ Steven Bird

صدر 2002م
عن كتاب Phonology Steven Bird University of Pennsylvania:
Phonology
Steven Bird
University of Pennsylvania
2002
Abstract
Phonology is the systematic study of the sounds used in language, their internal structure, and their
composition into syllables, words and phrases. Computational phonology is the application of formal and
computational techniques to the representation and processing of phonological information. This chapter
will present the fundamentals of descriptive phonology along with a brief overview of computational
phonology.
1 Phonological contrast, the phoneme, and distinctive features
There is no limit to the number of distinct sounds that can be produced by the human vocal apparatus.
However, this infinite variety is harnessed by human languages into sound systems consisting of a few
dozen language-specific categories, or phonemes. An example of an English phoneme is t. English has a
variety of t-like sounds, such as the aspirated th of ten the unreleased t^of net, and the flapped Rof water
(in some dialects). In English, these distinctions are not used to differentiate words, and so we do not
find pairs of English words which are identical but for their use of th versus t^. (By comparison, in some
other languages, such as Icelandic and Bengali, aspiration is contrastive.) Nevertheless, since these sounds
(or phones, or segments) are phonetically similar, and since they occur in complementary distribution
(i.e. disjoint contexts) and cannot differentiate words in English, they are all said to be allophones of the
English phoneme t.

Of course, setting up a few allophonic variants for each of a finite set of phonemes does not account
for the infinite variety of sounds mentioned above. If one were to record multiple instances of the same
utterance by the single speaker, many small variations could be observed in loudness, pitch, rate, vowel
quality, and so on. These variations arise because speech is a motor activity involving coordination of
many independent articulators, and perfect repetition of any utterance is simply impossible. Similar variations
occur between different speakers, since one person’s vocal apparatus is different to the next person’s
(and this is how we can distinguish people’s voices). So 10 people saying ten 10 times each will produce
100 distinct acoustic records for the t sound. This diversity of tokens associated with a single type is
sometimes referred to as free variation.
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